Pneumonia is caused by an infection such as viruses, bacteria, or other organisms. The causes of Pneumonia can vary from person to person. Pneumonia is an infection that provokes the alveoli in one or both lungs to fill with fluid or purulent material, causing cough with phlegm, fever, chills, and breathing difficulties. Sometimes, inhaled chemicals that irritate the lungs can be treated as causes of Pneumonia.
People at higher risk of developing Pneumonia who are working with pesticides and herbicides. Immunocompetent individuals can fight off pneumonia infections. However, immune-compromised individuals have a weakened immune system, so they are at higher risk of developing this infection. Pneumonia is caused by germs such as viruses, fungi, and bacteria. A variety of ways can be considered as causes of pneumonia.
The Ways Pneumonia Germs can spread:
- Through the air by coughing without covering your mouth and nose.
- Through contacts like shaking hands or hugging
- Through surfaces that are contaminated
- In hospital or health care facilities through connection with different equipment.
In the United state, about 30% of the causes of pneumonia is a virus. It is a disease entity wherein there is the viral causation of CO2 and O2 gas exchange abnormalities at the alveolar level, secondary to viral-mediated or immune response mediated inflammation.
Viral Pneumonia is caused by:
- influenza A and B viruses, the most common cause in adults.
- respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is very common in infants and young children
- SARS-CoV-2, the new virus that causes COVID-19
- Rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, and parainfluenza viruses can cause the conjunctiva infection that is a transparent membrane that cords the eyelid and covers the white portion of the eye.
Viruses that are the causes of pneumonia travel in the air in the form of droplets after someone sneezes or coughs. The virus can transfer into the body through the nasal or oral cavity.
Antibiotics won’t help when viruses are the causes of Pneumonia. Antiviral medications are recommended. If the influenza virus causes a viral infection, the doctor may prescribe Oseltamivir (Tamiflu), zanamivir (Relenza), or Peramivir (Rapivab). If RSVPs are the causes of Pneumonia, the doctor may prescribe Ribavirin (Virazole).
Bacterial Pneumonia is caused by Streptococcus pneumonia. Pneumococcus is a gram-positive bacteria that is found in primates, livestock, and felines. They are also part of the upper respiratory tract’s normal flora, mostly found in the throat and nasal passage. In a healthy individual, these bacteria can live in the throat without causing any trouble. However, for people who have a weakened immune system due to any reason, the bacteria can go down into the lungs and become active. When this happens, the lung parenchyma inflamed up due to the infiltration of alveoli and bronchioles with neutrophils and fibrinous exudate. Thus they are also causes of pneumonia.
Antibiotics help when bacteria are the causes of Pneumonia. Treatments will depend on the type and extremity of Pneumonia, age, and overall health. The option includes Antibiotics that might be selected for the treatment of bacterial Pneumonia include the macrolide antibiotics azithromycin (Zithromax) or clarithromycin (Biaxin XL) or doxycycline can also be used or pain relievers like aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), and acetaminophen (Tylenol or other).
Chemical Pneumonia is a type of lung infuriation. Usually, Pneumonia is caused by bacteria or viruses. Pneumonia can also be caused by poisons or toxins that cause inflammation of the lungs, known as chemical Pneumonia. Only 20% of people are prone to this kind of Pneumonia. Many substances, including liquid, gases, and small particles such as dust or fumes, can cause chemical Pneumonia. Chemical Pneumonia is caused by Aspiration, which means when the individual breathes oral secretion of stomach content into the lungs.
Treatment of chemical Pneumonia consists of oxygen therapy and, if necessary, interim assistance from a breathing machine via a tube placed in the throat. The windpipe (trachea) may be pumped to clear secretions and aspirated food particles out of the airways.
Symptoms of Pneumonia:
The symptoms have shown quickly, or they can creep up on you over a few days. Common symptoms are
- High fever up to 105 F
- Coughing out greenish, yellow, or sometimes bloody sputum
- Chills that makes shake
- Shortness of breath
- Fatigued all the time
- Low appetite
- Sharp or stabby chest pain, especially during coughing
- A lot of sweating
- Tachypnea and tachycardia
- Sometime cyanosis
- Can confuse older adults
Home remedies for the treatment of Pneumonia:
Do a salt gargle
Drink hot peppermint tea for coughing, fever, apply a lukewarm compress, drink warm water, or have a bowl of soup more frequently, for chills sit in Front of the fan and drink a cup of coffee and for chest pain drink turmeric tea. Gargling with salt water can help eliminate some of the sputa in the throat and relieve the dryness and irritation. To do this:
- Dissolve ¼ to ½ teaspoon of salt into a glass of warm water.
- Gargle the mixture for 30 seconds and then spit it out.
- Repeat at least three times each day.
Peppermint Tea can also decrease irritation because peppermint is a proven decongestant, anti-inflammatory, and pain killer. To make fresh tea:
- Wash and cut mint leaves and put them in a cup
- Add boiling water and then strain and serve with lemon, honey, or milk.
Prevention of Pneumonia:
- Wash hands. brush them with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, or use sanitizer when in a public place
- Get flu vaccination each year at the beginning of the flu season.
- Stay at 6 feet distance from people who are sneezing or coughing
- Try not to touch facial parts.
- Quit smoking or addiction
- Deep breathing and cough exercises can also help
- Drink a lot of water to get rid of congestion.
Diagnosis of Pneumonia:
If Pneumonia is suspected, the doctor will recommend the following tests:
pneumonia is caused by different germs that can detect by doing a blood test to identify the type of organism causing the infection. So there can be multiple causes of pneumonia. Chest X-rays also help the physician to determine the extent and location of the disease and to understand the causes of Pneumonia. It allows the doctor to identify what kind of germ is caused by Pneumonia. And oximetry measures the oxygen level in the blood. Other tests include sputum tests, CT scans, and pleural fluid culture.
The lungs are responsible for supplying oxygen all over the body. Pneumonia threatens your oxygen tank due to which can also cause death and as discussed, a whole lot of variants can be the causes of pneumonia. So, the best thing to do when you’re diagnosed with Pneumonia, take extra rest. As different germs cause Pneumonia, so we have to take precautions regarding it.